When we talk about charging an EV (= Electric Vehicle), the terms ‘mode 2’, ‘mode 3’ and ‘mode 4’ are often heard. The term ‘mode’ indicates which charging technology is used. A description of the various technologies is provided below.
Mode 1 means charging with a normal socket (220V, max. 10A) with no current limitation or protection. Mode 1 is not used for charging EVs!
Mode 2 means charging with an average domestic socket that is earthed. A charging cable is used for this purpose (this is provided when you purchase an EV). The cable connects a ‘dumb’ socket to a ‘smart’ car. The cable has an EV connector and a standard plug. The ‘box’ on the cable is the ICCB (In-Cable Control Box) or IC-CPD (In-Cable Control and Protecting Device) with built-in current limitation. The IC-CPD contains the protection that would otherwise be found in the charge point and this box can exchange information with the EV, just like a charge point.
With an average domestic socket, the charging current must be limited to 10A. As a result of this limitation to 10A, the maximum charging capacity is 2.3 kW.
|2,3 kW||17 kW||100 Km||~ 8 h|
* With an average consumption of 17 kWh per 100 km, you need about 8 hours to recharge for a distance of 100 km at a charging capacity of 2.3 kW.
As a result, EVs are not charged using an average socket with a charging current of more than 10A. However, the use of an extension cable or socket – and certainly a coiled extension cable – is also strongly discouraged! The temperature will get extremely high with a coiled cable, even at 10A. In addition to the extreme heat, an extension cable will also cause additionallosses.
As well as the use of an average socket, Mode 2 charging can also be done with an industrial (CEE) socket (as long as you have a cable with the correct plug). These are of course not permitted in homes as they do not have child protection.
Mode 3 makes ‘controlled’ charging possible: there is communication between the car and the charger, and voltage will only pass throught the socket once a suitable charging current has been determined by the car.
To charge at home with Mode 3, you need a specially adapted connection. 1-phase and 3-phase charging are available. If you wish to use 3-phase charging at home, the mains connection may have to be expanded to 3 phases.1
Your home connection provides Alternating Current = AC. The EV contains a converter that converts the alternating current to direct current (= DC) for the batteries. As a result, Mode 3 charging is considered to be AC charging. A Mode 3 charge point can supply much more power: 3.6 kW (230V/16A) or more with 1 phase through to 22 kW (400V/32A) with 3-phase charging. An EV with a more powerful converter – such as a Tesla Model S (11 kW or optionally 16 kW) – will therefore charge faster in Mode 3.
|3,7 kW||Mono||17 kWh||100 Km||~ 4,6 h|
|7,4 kW||Mono||17 kWh||100 Km||~ 2,3 h|
|11,1 KW||Tri||17 kWh||100 Km||~ 1,5 h|
|22,2 kW||Tri||17 kWh||100 Km||~ 0,8 h|
* With an average consumption of 17 kWh per 100 km, you need about 1.5 hours to recharge for a distance of 100 km at a charging capacity of 11 kWh.
In Mode 4, direct current is supplied: DC or DCFC (Direct-current or Direct-current fast charging). As a result, Mode 4 is also known as DC charging.
Fast charging is intended to charge the first 80% of the EV, with the last 20% being charged more slowly. Although you can charge up to 100%, it is politer to stop at 80% to avoid queues at a charging station.
As the name suggests, you can charge quickly at a fast charger. The fast charger or fast charge point is connected directly to the car battery. These charging stations have a charging capacity of 50 kW or more (150 and 350 kWh).2
|50 kW||17 kWh||100 Km||~ 0,5 h|
|150 kW||17 kWh||100 Km||~ 10 min|
|350 kW||17 kWh||100 Km||~ 4,5 min|
* With an average consumption of 17 kWh per 100 km, you need about half an hour to recharge for a distance of 100 km at a fast charger with a charging capacity of 50 kWh.
These fast chargers work with Mode 4, but Mode 3 is often also offered for cars that are not equipped to charge with Mode 4 (however, more and more cars are being equipped to charge with Mode 4 as standard). In order to charge in Mode 3 at a fast charger, the EV must allow for 3-phase charging and must be able to handle the available charging capacity. Otherwise an ordinary charge point can also be used.
The charging cable is permanently connected to the fast chargers. However, note that the speed also depends on the specifications of the EV and the condition of the battery. After all, the charging speed will decrease when the battery reaches the maximum temperature.
These DC chargers are very expensive to install (prices range from €22,000 to €175,000 per unit) and require a heavy-duty electricity connection. Fast chargers are not intended for home installation, although they are not prohibited. In Mode 4, the battery charger is located in the fast charger and the converter in the EV is not used.3
1 This expansion comes with a hefty price tag, but MobilityPlus offers an alternative solution using the energy controller. More information can be requested from firstname.lastname@example.org.
2 Currently, cars are only adapted to a charging capacity of 50 kW; cars that can handle 150 kWh or more are expected on the market soon.
3 Conversion from AC to DC
Bron: Stagobel - infoavond 2018 e-mobility, milieuvriendelijkevoertuigen.be, laadkabeldiscounter.nl, MobilityPlus